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Buddhism: Details about 'Paramita'

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Pāramitā (Sanskrit) or Parami (Pāli): "Perfection" or "Transcendent". In Buddhism, the Paramitas refer to the perfection or culmination of certain practices. These practices are cultivated by Bodhisattvas for crossing from sensuous life (Samsara) to Enlightenment (Nirvana).

In Theravada Buddhism, the Ten Perfections (Paramis) are; (original terms in Pali)

  1. dāna parami : generosity, giving of oneself
  2. sila parami : virtue, morality, proper conduct
  3. nekhamma parami : renunciation
  4. panna parami : transcendental wisdom, insight
  5. viriya parami : energy, diligence, vigour, effort
  6. kṣanti parami : patience, tolerance, forbearance, acceptance, endurance
  7. sacca parami : truthfulness, honesty
  8. aditthana parami : determination, resolution
  9. metta parami : loving-kindness
  10. upekkha parami : equanimity, serenity

In Mahayana Buddhism, the Perfection of Wisdom (Prajna-paramita) Sutra and Lotus (Saddharmapundarika) Sutra



list the Six Perfections as; (original terms in Sanskrit)

  1. Dāna paramita: generosity, giving of oneself
  2. Sila paramita : virtue, morality, proper conduct
  3. Kṣanti paramita : patience, tolerance, forbearance, acceptance, endurance
  4. Virya paramita : energy, diligence, vigour, effort
  5. Dhyāna paramita : one-pointed concentration, contemplation
  6. Prajña paramita : wisdom, insight

The later Ten Stages (Dasabhumika) Sutra lists another four;

7. Upāya paramita: skillful means
8. Pranidhana paramita: vow, resolution, aspiration, determination
9. Bala paramita: spiritual power
10. Jñana paramita: knowledge


Páramitá Paramita Paramita 波羅蜜 Paramitas Парамита


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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Paramita". A list of the wikipedia authors can be found here.