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Buddhism: Details about 'Dokusan'

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Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. Below are given a number of important Buddhist terms, short definitions, and the languages in which they appear. In this list, an attempt has been made to organize terms by their original form and give translations and synonyms in other languages below the definition.

Languages and traditions dealt with here:


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A

DefinitionEtymologyIn other languages
Abhidhamma Pitaka The third basket of the Tripitaka canon, the reorganization of all doctrines in a systematic way
  • Pāli: Abhidhamma-piṭaka
  • Sanskrit: Abhidharma-piṭaka

論藏, 論蔵

  • Cn: ??
  • Jp: ronzō
  • Vi: Luận tạng
acariya, lit. "teacher", One of the two teachers of a starting out monk - the other one is called upādhyāya
  • Pāli: ācāriya
  • Sanskrit: ācārya
  • Thai: อาจารย์ Ajahn

阿闍梨, 阿闍梨耶

  • Cn: ??
  • Jp: ajari or ajariya
  • Vi: a-xà-lê
addiction, see tanha
agama The Buddhist texts in Sanskrit
  • Sanskrit: āgama
  • Pāli: nikāya

阿含

  • Cn: ??
  • Jp: agon
  • Vi: A-hàm
alayavijnana, see Store consciousness
  • Pāli, Sanskrit: ālayavijñāna
  • Tib: ཀུན་གཞི་རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པ་
    kun gzhi rnam par shes pa

阿賴耶識, 阿頼耶識

  • Cn: ??
  • Jp: araya-shiki
  • Vi: a-lại-da thức
Amitabha The main buddha of the Pure Land school
  • Sanskrit: amitābha (lit. "limitless light") and amitāyus (lit. "limitless life")

阿彌陀 or 阿彌陀佛, 阿弥陀 or 阿弥陀仏

  • Ch: Āmítuó or Āmítuó fó
  • Jp: Amida or Amida-butsu
  • Vi: A-di-đà or Phật A-di-đà
anagarika A white-robed student in the Theravada tradition who, for a few months, awaits being considered for Samaneras ordination
  • Pāli: anāgarika
anapanasati Mindfulness of the breath meditation
  • Pāli: ānāpānasati
anatta Doctrine of the nonexistence of the soul
  • Pāli: anattā
  • Sanskrit: anātman

無我

  • Cn: wúwǒ
  • Jp: muga
  • Vi: vô ngã
anicca Impermanence
  • Pāli: anicca
  • Sanskrit: anitya

無常

  • Cn: wúcháng
  • Jp: mujō
  • Vi: vô thường
arhat, lit. "the Worthy One", A living person who has reached Enlightenment
  • Pāli: arahat or arahant
  • Sanskrit: arhat or arhant
  • Tib: dgra com pa

阿羅漢

  • Cn: āluóhàn
  • Jp: arakan
  • Vi: A-la-hán
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B

DefinitionEtymologyIn other languages
bhavana Becoming, being, existing; the 10th link of Pratitya-Samutpada
  • Pāli, Sanskrit: bhava
  • Thai: ภาวนา

  • Cn: yǒu
  • Jp: u
  • Vi: hữu
bhikkhu, lit. "beggar", A Buddhist monk
  • Pāli: bhikkhu
  • Sanskrit: bhikṣu
  • Tib: དགེ་སློང་ dge slong
  • Thai: ภิกษุ bhiksu

比丘

  • Cn: bǐ qiū
  • Jp: biku
  • Vi: tỉ-khâu or tỉ-khưu
bhikkhuni A Buddhist nun
  • from bhikkhu
  • Pāli: bhikkhuni
  • Sanskrit: bhikṣuni
  • Tib: དགེ་སློང་མ་ sde slong ma
  • Thai: ภิกษุณี bhiksuni

比丘尼

  • Cn: bǐ qiū ní"
  • Jp: bikuni
  • Vi: tỉ-khâu-ni
bija, lit. "seed", A metaphor for the origin or cause of things, used in the teachings of the Yogacara school
  • Sanskrit: bīja

種子

  • Cn: zhŏngzí
  • Jp: shushi
  • Vi: chủng tử
bodhi Awakening or Enlightenment
  • Pāli, Sanskrit: bodhi

菩提

  • Cn: pútí
  • Jp: bodai
  • Vi: bồ-đề
bodhi tree The Sacred Fig (Ficus religiosa) tree under which Gautama reached Enlightenment

菩提樹

  • Cn: pútíshù
  • Jp: bodaiju
  • Vi: Bồ-đề thụ
bodhicitta The motivation of a bodhisattva
  • Pāli, Sanskrit: bodhicitta
  • Tib: བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་ byang chub kyi sems

菩提心

  • Cn: pútíxīn
  • Jp: bodaishin
  • Vi: bồ-đề tâm
bodhisattva One with the intention to become a Buddha in order to liberate all other sentient beings from suffering
  • Pāli: bodhisatta
  • Sanskrit: bodhisattva

菩薩

  • Cn: púsā
  • Jp: bosatsu
  • Vi: Bồ-tát
Buddha A Buddha; also, the Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama.
  • from √budh: to awaken
  • Pāli, Sanskrit: buddha

佛, 仏

  • Cn:
  • Jp: butsu or hotoke
  • Vi: Phật or bụt
buddha nature The ability shared by sentient beings to achieve Enlightenment; the innate (latent) Buddha nature (esp. in Tendai/Tiantai, Nichiren thought)
  • Sanskrit: buddhatā or buddha-svabhāva

佛性, 仏性

  • Cn: fóxìng
  • Jp: busshō
  • Vi: Phật tính
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D

DefinitionEtymologyIn other languages
Dalai Lama, lit. "the lama with wisdom like an ocean", The most important spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhism
  • Tibetan: ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་ taa-la'i bla-ma

達賴喇嘛

  • Ch: ??
  • Jp: ??
  • Vi: Đạt Lai Lạt Ma or Đạt-lại Lạt-ma
dana generosity or giving; in Buddhism, it also refers to the practice of cultivating generosity
  • Pāli, Sanskrit: dāna

布施

  • Cn: ??
  • Jp: fuse
  • Vi: bố thí
dependent origination, see Pratitya-Samutpada
  • Pāli: paṭicca-samuppāda
  • Sanskrit: pratītya-samutpāda

因縁, also 緣起, 縁起

  • Cn: ??
  • Jp: innen, also engi
  • Vi: duyên khởi
dhamma/dharma Often refers to the doctrines and teachings of the faith, but it may have broader uses. Also, it is an important technical term meaning something like "phenomenological constituent." This leads to the potential for confusion, puns, and double entendres, as the latter meaning often has negative connotations
  • from √dhṛ: to hold
  • Pāli: dhamma
  • Sanskrit: dharma

  • Cn:
  • Jp:
  • Vi: pháp
dhammavinaya The dharma and vinaya (roughly "doctrine and discipline") considered together. This term essentially means the whole teachings of Buddhism as taught to monks
dhyana, see jhana
  • Pāli: jhāna
  • Sanskrit: dhyana

禪, 禅

  • Ch: chán
  • Jp: Zen
  • Vi: thiền-na or thiền
doan In Zen, a term for person sounding the bell that marks the beginning and end of Zazen
  • Japanese: doan
dokusan A private interview between a Zen student and his master. It is an important element in the Zen training, as it provides an opportunity for the student to discuss problems in his practice and to demonstrate his understanding
  • Japanese: 独参 dokusan

獨參

  • Cn: ??
  • Vi: độc tham
dukkha Suffering, dissatisfaction, stress
  • Pāli: dukkha
  • Sanskrit: duḥkha

  • Cn: kǔ
  • Jp: ku
  • Vi: khổ
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F

DefinitionEtymologyIn other languages
Five Five-Hundred-Year Periods Five sub-divisions of the three periods following the Buddha's passing (三時 Cn: ??; Jp: sanji; Vi: tam thời), significant for many Mahayana adherents:
  1. Age of enlightenment (解脱堅固 Cn: ??; Jp: gedatsu kengo)
  2. Age of meditation (禅定堅固 Cn: ??; Jp: zenjō kengo)
    These two ages comprise the Former Day of the Law (正法 Cn: ??; Jp: shōbō)

  3. Age of reading, reciting, and listening (読誦多聞堅固 Cn: ??; Jp: dokuju tamon kengo)
  4. Age of building temples and stupas (多造塔寺堅固 Cn: ??; Jp: tazō tōji kengo)
    These two ages comprise the Middle Day of the Law (像法 Cn: ??; Jp: zōhō)

  5. Age of conflict (闘諍堅固 Cn: ??; Jp: tōjō kengo), an age characterized by unrest, strife, famine, and other, natural and human-made disasters.
    This age corresponds to the beginning of the Latter Day of the Law (末法 Cn: mòfǎ; Jp: mappō) when the (historical) Buddha's teachings would loose all power of salvation and perish (白法隠没 Cn: ??; Jp: byakuhō onmotsu) and a new Buddha would appear to save the people.
  • The three periods and the five five-hundred year periods are described in the Sutra of the Great Assembly (大集 Cn: ??; Jp: Daishutu-kyō, Daijuku-kyō, Daijikkyō, or Daishukkyō).

五箇五百歳

  • Cn: 五箇五百歳 wǔ ge wǔ bái suì
  • Jp: 五箇の五百歳 go no gohyaku sai
Four Noble Truths
  1. Suffering: Dukkha (Sanskrit: duḥkhāryasatya; Thai: ทุกข์; 苦諦 Cn: ??; Jp: kutai; Vi: khổ đế)
  2. Attachment (desire): Samudaya (Sanskrit: samudayāryasatya; Thai:



    สมุทัย; 集諦 Cn: ??; Jp: jittai; Vi: tập khổ đế)
  3. Elimination of attachment (desire): Nirodha (Sanskrit: duḥkhanirodhāryasatya; Thai: นิโรธ; 滅諦 Cn: ??; Jp: mettai; Vi: diệt khổ đế)
  4. The path that leads out of suffering: Magga (Sanskrit: duḥkhanirodhagāminī pratipad; Thai: มรรค; 道諦 Cn: ??; Jp: dōtai; Vi: đạo đế)
  • Pāli: cattāri ariya-saccāni
  • Sanskrit: चत्वारि आर्यसत्यानि catvāry āryasatyāni

四諦

  • Cn: ??
  • Jp: shitai
  • Vi: tứ diệu đế
fukudo In Zen, term for person who strikes the han
  • Japanese
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G

DefinitionEtymologyIn other languages
gassho A position used for greeting, with the palms together and fingers pointing upwards in prayer position; used in the Zen tradition, but also common in many cultures in the East. It expresses greeting, request, thankfulness, reverence and prayer. Also a mudra or inkei of Japanese Shingon. See also: Namaste
  • Japanese: 合掌 gasshō
  • Sanskrit: anjali

合掌

  • Cn: 合掌 hézhǎng
  • Vi: hiệp chưởng
geshe An academic degree awarded at the conclusion of lengthy studies often lasting nine years or more
  • Tibetan
gongan, lit. "public case", a meditative method developed in the Chan/Seon/Zen traditions, generally consisting of a problem that defies solution by means of rational thought; see koan
  • Chinese 公案 gōng-àn

公案

  • Ko: gong'an
  • Jp: kōan
  • Vi: công án
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H

DefinitionEtymologyIn other languages
han In Zen monasteries, wooden board that is struck announcing sunrise, sunset and the end of the day
  • Japanese
Hinayana, lit. "inferior vehicle", A coinage by the Mahayana for the Buddhist doctrines concern with the achievement of Nirvana as a Sravaka-Buddha or a Pratyeka-Buddha, as opposed to a Samyaksam-Buddha
  • Sanskrit: hīnayāna

小乘

  • Cn: Xiǎochěng
  • Jp: Shōjō
  • Vi: Tiểu thừa
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I

DefinitionEtymologyIn other languages
ino, lit. "bringer of joy to the assembly", in Zen, one of the leaders of a sesshin; in Zen temples, the temple official in charge of maintaining the zendo, or meditation hall
  • Japanese
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J

DefinitionEtymologyIn other languages
jhana Meditative contemplation; more often associated with śamatha practices than vipaśyana. See also: shamata, samadhi, samapatti
  • from √dhyā: to think of, to contemplate, meditate on
  • Pāli: jhāna
  • Sanskrit: dhyāna

禪, 禅

  • Ch: chán
  • Jp: Zen
  • Vi: thiền-na or thiền
jisha In Zen, a senior priest's attendant
  • Japanese
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K

DefinitionEtymologyIn other languages
karma, lit. "action", The law of cause and effect in Buddhism
  • from √kri: to do
  • Pāli: kamma
  • Sanskrit: karma

  • Cn:
  • Jp:
  • Vi: nghiệp
kensho In Zen, enlightenment; has the same meaning as satōri, but is customary used for an initial awakening experience
  • Japanese: 見性 kenshō

見性

  • Cn: jiànxìng
  • Vi: kiến tính
khyenpo, also khenpo, an academic degree similar to a doctorate in theology, philosophy, and psychology
  • Tibetan
kinhin Zen walking meditation
  • Japanese: 經行 kinhin or kyōgyō

經行

  • Cn: jingxing
koan A story, question, problem or statement generally inaccessible to rational understanding, yet may be accessible to Intuition
  • Japanese: 公案 kōan

公案

  • Cn: gōng-àn
  • Ko: gong'an
  • Vi: công án
kyosaku In Zen, a flattened stick used to strike the shoulders during zazen, to help overcome fatigue or reach satori
  • Japanese: 警策 kyōsaku, called keisaku in Rinzai
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L

DefinitionEtymologyIn other languages
lama A Tibetan teacher or master; equivalent to Sanskrit "guru"
  • Tibetan: བླ་མ་ lama
  • Sanskrit: guru

喇嘛

  • Cn: ??
  • Vi: lạt-ma
lineage The official record of the historical descent of dharma teachings from one teacher to another; by extension, may refer to the sect of a set of practitioners
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M

DefinitionEtymologyIn other languages
Madhyamaka Buddhist philosophical school, founded by Nagarjuna. Members of this school are called Madhyamikas
  • Sanskrit: mādhyamika

中觀宗

  • Cn: ??
  • Vi: Trung quán tông
mahasiddha An eccentric yogi in Tantric Buddhism, often associated with the highest levels of enlightenment
  • Sanskrit: mahāsiddha

大成就

  • Cn: ??
  • Vi: đại thành tựu
Mahayana, lit. "great vehicle", A major branch of Buddhism practiced in China, Tibet, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and Taiwan
  • Sanskrit: mahāyāna

大乘

  • Cn: Dàshèng
  • Jp: Daijō
  • Vi: Đại thừa
Maitreya The Buddha of the future epoch
  • Pāli: Metteyya
  • Sanskrit: Maitreya

彌勒 or 彌勒佛, 弥勒 or 弥勒仏

  • Ch: Mi Le or Mi Le fó
  • Jp: Miroku or Miroku-butsu
  • Vi: Di-lặc or Phật Di-lặc
makyo In Zen, unpleasant or distracting thoughts or illusions that occur during zazen
  • Japanese: 魔境 makyō
Mappo The "degenerate" Latter Day of the Law. A time period supposed to begin 2,000 years after Sakyamuni Buddha's passing and last for "10,000 years"; follows the two 1,000-year periods of Former Day of the Law (正法 Cn: ??; Jp: shōbō) and of Middle Day of the Law (像法 Cn: ??; Jp: zōhō). During this degenerate age, chaos will prevail and the people will be unable to attain enlightenment through the word of Sakyamuni Buddha. See the Three periods
  • Japanese: 末法 mappō

末法

  • Cn: mòfǎ
Middle way The practice of avoidance of extreme views and lifestyle choices
  • Pāli: majjhimāpaṭipadā
  • Sanskrit: madhyamāpratipad

中道

  • Ch: zhōngdào
  • Jp: chūdō
  • Vi: trung đạo
mindfulness The practice whereby a person is intentionally aware of his or her thoughts and actions in the present moment, non-judgmentally. The 7th step of the Noble Eightfold Path
  • Pāli: sammā-sati
  • Sanskrit: samyag-smṛti

正念

  • Cn: ??
  • Vi: chính niệm
moksha Liberation
  • Sanskrit: moksha

解脱

  • Jp: gedatsu
mokugyo A wooden drum carved from one piece, usually in the form of a fish
  • Japanese: 木魚

木魚

  • Cn: mu-yü
  • Vi:
mondo In Zen, a short dialogue between teacher and student
  • Japanese: 問答 mondō
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N

DefinitionEtymologyIn other languages
namo An exclamation showing reverence; devotion. Often placed in front of the name of an object of veneration, e.g., a Buddha's name or a sutra (Nam(u) Myōhō Renge Kyō), to express devotion to it. Defined in Sino-Japanese as 帰命 kimyō: to base one's life upon, to devote (or submit) one's life to

Derivatives:

  • Namo Amitabha
  • Pāli: namo
  • Sanskrit: namaḥ or namas


Derivatives:

  • Sanskrit: namas amitābha

南無

  • Cn: nammu
  • Jp: namu or nam
  • Vi: nam-mô

Derivatives:
南無阿弥陀佛

  • Cn: Nàmó Āmítuó fó
  • Jp: Namu Amida butsu
  • Vi: Nam-mô A-di-đà Phật
nibbana/nirvana Extinction or extinguishing; ultimate enlightenment in the Buddhist tradition
  • Pāli: nibbāna
  • Sanskrit: nirvana

涅槃

  • Cn: nièpán
  • Jp: nehan
  • Vi: Niết-bàn
nikaya, lit. "volume", The Buddhist texts in Pāli
  • Pāli: nikāya
  • Sanskrit: āgama

部經

  • Cn: ??
  • Vi: bộ kinh
Noble Eightfold Path
  1. Right View (Pāli: sammā-diṭṭhi; Sanskrit: samyag-dṛṣṭi; 正見 Cn: ??; Vi: chính kiến)
  2. Right Thought (Pāli: sammā-saṅkappa; Sanskrit: samyak-saṃkalpa; 正思唯 Cn: ??; Vi: chính tư duy)
    These 2



    constitute the path of Wisdom (Pāli: paññā; Sanskrit: prajñā)

  3. Right Speech (Pāli: sammā-vācā; Sanskrit: samyag-vāk; 正語 Cn: ??; Vi: chính ngữ)
  4. Right Action (Pāli: sammā-kammanta; Sanskrit: samyak-karmānta; 正業 Cn: ??; Vi: chính nghiệp)
  5. Right Living (Pāli: sammā-ājīva; Sanskrit: samyag-ājīva; 正命 Cn: ??; Vi: chính mệnh)
    These 3 constitute the path of Virtue (Pāli: sīla; Sanskrit: śīla)

  6. Right Effort (Pāli: sammā-vāyāma; Sanskrit: samyag-vyāyāma; 正精進 Cn: ??; Vi: chính tinh tiến)
  7. Right Mindfulness (Pāli: sammā-sati; Sanskrit: samyag-smṛti; 正念 Cn: ??; Vi: chính niệm)
  8. Right Concentration (Pāli: sammā-samādhi; Sanskrit: samyak-samādhi; 正定 Cn: ??; Vi: chính định)
    The last 3 constitute the path of Concentration (Pāli, Sanskrit: samādhi)
  • Pāli: aṭṭhāṅgika-magga
  • Sanskrit: aṣṭāṅgika-mārga

八正道

  • Cn: bāzhèngdào
  • Jp: hasshōdō
  • Vi: bát chính đạo
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O

DefinitionEtymologyIn other languages
oryoki A set of bowls used in a Zen eating ceremony
  • Japanese: 応量器 ōryōki
osho A term used to address a monk of the Zen Buddhist tradition. Originally reserved for high ranking monks, it has since been appropriated for everyday use when addressing any male member of the Zen clergy
  • Japanese: 和尚 oshō
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P

DefinitionEtymologyIn other languages
panca skandha The five constituent elements into which an individual is analyzed. They are:
  1. "form": Pāli, Sanskrit: rūpa; 色 Cn: ??; Jp: shiki
  2. "sensation": Pāli, Sanskrit: vedanā; 受 Cn: ??; Jp: ju
  3. "cognition": Pāli: saññā; Sanskrit: saṃjñā; 想 Cn: ??; Jp:
  4. "mental formations": Pāli: saṅkhāra; Sanskrit: saṃskāra; 行 Cn: ??; Jp: gyō
  5. "consciousness": Pāli: viññāṇa; Sanskrit: vijñāna; 識 Cn: ??; Jp: shiki
  • Sanskrit: pañca skandha
  • Pāli: pañca khandha

五蘊, 五陰, 五薀

  • Cn: wǔyùn
  • Jp: go-on sometimes go-un
  • Vi: ngũ uẩn
paramartha Absolute, as opposed to merely conventional, truth or reality; see also samvrti
  • Sanskrit: paramārtha
paramita, lit. "reaching the other shore," usually rendered in English as "perfection." The Mahayana practices for obtaining enlightenment
  • Pāli: parami
  • Sanskrit: pāramitā

波羅蜜

  • Cn: bōluómì
  • Jp: haramitsu
parinibbana/parinirvana The final nibbana/nirvana

般涅槃

  • Cn: bō niè pán
  • Jp: hatsunehan
  • Vi: bát-niết-bàn
prajna/panna "wisdom"
  • Pāli: paññā
  • Sanskrit: prajñā

般若

  • Cn: banruo
  • Jp: hannya
  • Vi: bát-nhã
pratitya-samutpada "Dependent origination," the view that no phenomenon exists (or comes about) without depending on other phenomena or conditions around it. In English also called "conditioned genesis," "dependent co-arising," "interdependent arising," etc.

A famous application of dependent origination is the Twelve Nidana, or 12 inter-dependences (Sanskrit: dvādaśāṅgapratītyasamutpāda; 十二因縁 Cn: ??; Jp: jūni innen; Vi: thập nhị nhân duyên), which are:

  1. Ignorance (Pāli: avijjā; Sanskrit: avidyā; 無明 Cn: ??; Jp: mumyō; Vi: vô minh)
  2. Ignorance creates Mental Formation (Pāli: saṅkhāra; Sanskrit: saṃskāra; 行 Cn: ??; Jp: gyō; Vi: hành)
  3. Mental Formation creates Consciousness (Pāli: viññāṇa; Sanskrit: vijñāna; 識 Cn: ??; Jp: shiki; Vi: thức)
  4. Consciousness creates Name & Form (Pāli, Sanskrit: nāmarūpa; 名色 Cn: ??; Jp: myōshiki; Vi: danh sắc)
  5. Name & Form create Sense Gates (Pāli: saḷāyatana; Sanskrit: ṣaḍāyatana; 六入 or 六処 Cn: ??; Jp: rokunyū or rokusho; Vi: lục căn)
  6. Sense Gates create Contact (Pāli: phassa; Sanskrit: sparśa; 觸 or 触 Cn: ??; Jp: soku; Vi: xúc)
  7. Contact creates Feeling (Pāli, Sanskrit: vedanā; 受 Cn: ??; Jp: ju; Vi: thụ)
  8. Feeling creates Craving (Pāli: taṇhā; Sanskrit: tṛṣṇā; 愛 Cn: ??; Jp: ai; Vi: ái)
  9. Craving creates Clinging (Pāli, Sanskrit: upādāna; 取 Cn: ??; Jp: shu; Vi: thủ)
  10. Clinging creates Becoming (Pāli, Sanskrit: bhava; 有 Cn: ??; Jp: u; Vi: hữu)
  11. Becoming creates Birth (Pāli, Sanskrit: jāti; 生 Cn: ??; Jp: shō; Vi: sinh)
  12. Birth leads to Aging & Death (Pāli, Sanskrit: jarāmaraṇa; 老死 Cn: ??; Jp: rōshi; Vi: lão tử)
  • Pāli: paṭicca-samuppāda
  • Sanskrit: pratitya-samutpāda

縁起 (thought to be an abbreviation for 因)

  • Cn: ??
  • Jp: engi
  • Vi: duyên khởi
  • Also called 因縁
    • Cn: ??
    • Jp: innen
    • Vi: nhân duyên
purisa The practicing Buddhist community as a whole; sangha and laity
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R

DefinitionEtymologyIn other languages
rebirth The process of continuity of life after death
rinpoche, lit. "precious one", a recognized rebirth of a Tibetan Buddhist teacher (also called tulku) or Tibetan teacher
  • Tibetan

仁波切

  • Cn: ??
Rinzai Zen sect emphasizing sudden enlightenment and koan study; named for master Linji
  • Japanese: 臨済宗 Rinzai-shū

臨済宗

  • Cn: Línjì-zōng
  • Vi: Lâm Tế tông
Rohatsu A day traditionally honored as the day of the Buddha's enlightenment. While deep in meditation under a bodhi tree, he attained enlightenment upon seeing the morning star just at dawn; celebrated on the 8th day either of December or of the 12th month of the lunar calendar.
  • Japanese: 臘八 Rōhatsu
roshi, lit. "teacher", an honorific given to Japanese Buddhist teachers
  • Japanese 老師 rōshi

老師

  • Cn: lǎo shī (lit., old master)
  • Vi: lão sư
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S

DefinitionEtymologyIn other languages
samanera/shramanera A male novice monk, who, after a year or until the ripe age of 20, will be considered for the higher Bhikkhu ordination
  • Sanskrit: śrāmaṇera
samatha Mental stabilization; tranquility meditation. Distinguished from vipassana meditation
  • Pāli: samatha
  • Sanskrit: śamatha
samsara The cycle of birth and rebirth; the world as commonly experienced
  • Pāli, Sanskrit: saṃsāra

輪迴, 輪廻

  • Cn: ??
  • Jp: rinne
  • Vi: luân hồi
samu Work, conceived as a part of Zen training.
  • Japanese: 作務
samvrti Conventional, as opposed to absolute, truth or reality; see also paramartha
  • Sanskrit: saṃvrti
sangha The community of Buddhist monks and nuns
  • Sanskrit: saṅgha

僧, 僧侶

  • Cn: ??
  • Jp: , sōryō
  • Vi: tăng già
satori Awakening; understanding. A Japanese term for enlightenment
  • Japanese: 悟り satōri

  • Cn: wu
  • Vi: ngộ
sayadaw Burmese meditation master
sensei Teacher; Zen teacher
  • Japanese: 先生
sesshin A Zen retreat where practitioners meditate, eat and work together for several days
  • Japanese: 接心, 摂心

接心

  • Cn: ??
  • Vi: tiếp tâm
shikantaza Soto Zen. "Only concentrated on doing sitting" is the main meditation-method of Soto school of Japanese Zen Buddhism
  • Japanese: 只管打座
shunyata Emptiness; see also Nagarjuna
  • Pāli: suññatā
  • Sanskrit: śūnyatā

  • Cn: ??
  • Jp:
  • Vi: tính Không
sila "morals", "ethics": precepts
  • Pāli: sīla
  • Sanskrit: śīla

  • Cn: ??
  • Jp: kai
  • Vi: giới
Soto Sect of Zen emphasizing shikantaza as the primary mode of practice; see also Dogen
  • Japanese: 曹洞宗 Sōtō-shū

曹洞宗

  • Cn: Caodong-zong
  • Vi: Tào Ðộng tông
store consciousness The base consciousness (alayavijnana) taught in Yogacara Buddhism
  • Pāli, Sanskrit: ālayavijñāna

阿頼耶識

  • Cn: ??
  • Jp: arayashiki
  • Vi: a-lại-da thức
sutra Scripture; originally referred to short aphoristic sayings and collections thereof
  • from √siv: to sew
  • Pāli: sutta
  • Sanskrit: sutra

經, 経

  • Cn: ??
  • Jp: kyō
  • Vi: kinh
Sutra Pitaka The second basket of the Tripitaka canon, the collection of all Buddha's teachings
  • Pāli: Sutta-piṭaka
  • Sanskrit: Sūtra-piṭaka

經藏, 経蔵

  • Cn: ??
  • Jp: kyōzō
  • Vi: Kinh tạng
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T

DefinitionEtymologyIn other languages
tanha Craving or desire
  • Pāli: taṇhā
  • Sanskrit: tṛṣṇā

  • Cn: ài
  • Jp: ai
  • Vi: ái
tanto In Zen, one of the main leaders of a sesshin. In a Zen temple, the Tanto is the officer in charge of practice standards, i.e. teaching monks and lay practitioners how to sit, walk, bow, and chant in formal situations
  • Japanese
tantra Esoteric religious practices, including yoga, mantra..
  • Sanskrit: tantra

怛特羅

  • Cn: dàn té luǒ
  • Vi: đát-đặc-la
Tathagata The "Thus-Come One" or "Thus-Gone One"; One of the Buddha's ten epithets
  • Sanskrit: tathāgata

如来

  • Cn: rú lái
  • Jp: nyorai
  • Vi: như lai
tathagatagarbha Buddha-nature or the seed of enlightenment
  • Sanskrit: tathāgatagarbha

仏性

  • Cn: ??
  • Jp: busshō
  • Also 覚性
    • Cn: ??
    • Jp: kakushō
    • Vi: giác tính
  • Also 如来蔵
    • Cn: ??
    • Jp: nyuoraizō
    • Vi: như lai tạng
teisho A presentation by a Zen master during a sesshin. Rather than an explanation or exposition in the traditional sense, it is intended as a demonstration of Zen realisation
  • Japanese: 提唱 teishō
tenzo In Zen, the head cook for a sesshin. In Zen temples, the officer in charge of the kitchen
  • Japanese: 典座 tenzo

典座

  • Cn: ??
  • Vi: điển toạ
Theravada, lit. "words of the elders", The most orthodox branch of Buddhism
  • Pāli: theravāda
  • Sanskrit: sthaviravāda

上座部

  • Cn: shàngzuòbù
  • Jp: jōzabu
  • Vi: Thượng toạ bộ
Three periods
  • Three divisions of the time following the historical Buddha's passing: the Former (or Early) Day of the Law (正法 Cn: ??; Jp: shōbō), the first thousand years; the Middle Day of the Law (像法 Cn: ??; Jp: zōhō), the second thousand years; and the Latter Day of the Law (末法 Cn: mòfǎ; Jp: mappō), which is to last for 10,000 years.
  • The three periods are significant to Mahayana adherents, particularly those who hold the Lotus Sutra in high regard; e.g., Tiantai (Tendai) and Nichiren Buddhists, who believe that different Buddhist teachings are valid (i.e., able to lead practitioners to enlightenment) in each period due to the different capacity to accept a teaching (機根 Cn: ??; Jp: kikon) of the people born in each respective period.
  • The three periods are further divided into five five-hundred year periods (五五百歳 Cn: ??; Jp: go no gohyaku sai), the fifth and last of which was prophecized to be a when the Buddhism of Sakyamuni would loose all power of salvation and a new Buddha would appear to save the people. This time period would be characterized by unrest, strife, famine, and other, natural disasters.
  • The three periods and the five five-hundred year periods are described in the Sutra of the Great Assembly (大集経 Cn: ??; Jp: Daishutu-kyō, Daijuku-kyō, Daijikkyō, or Daishukkyō). Descriptions of the three periods also appear in other sutras, some of which ascribe different lengths of time to them (although all agree that Mappō will last for 10,000 years).

三時

  • Cn: ??
  • Jp: sanji
  • Vi: tam thời
Three poisons The three primary causes of unskillful action or creation of "negative" karma:
  1. Greed or selfish desire (Pāli: taṇhā; Sanskrit: tṛṣṇā; 貪 Cn: ??; Jp: ton; Vi: ái)
  2. Hatred or anger (Sanskrit: dveṣa; 瞋 Cn: ??; Jp: jin; Vi: sân)
  3. Ignorance or delusion (Pāli: avijjā; Sanskrit: avidyā; Tib.: མ་རིག་པ་ ma rig-pa; 癡 Cn: ??; Jp: chi; Vi: vô minh)

三毒

  • Cn: ??
  • Jp: sandoku
  • Vi: tam độc
trailõkya The 3 "regions" of the world:
  1. Kamaloka or Kamadhatu: world of desires (Sanskrit, Pāli: kāmaloka, kāmadhātu; Tibetan: འདོད་ཁམས་ `dod khams; 欲 界 Cn: ??, Vi: dục giới)
  2. Rupaloka or Rupadhatu: world of form (Sanskrit: rūpaloka, rūpadhātu; Tibetan: གཟུགས་ཁམས་ gzugs khams; 色界 Cn: ??; Vi: sắc giới)
  3. Arupaloka or Arupadhatu: world without form or desire (Sanskrit: arūpaloka, arūpadhātu; Tibetan: གཟུགས་མེད་ཁམས་ gzugs med khams; 無色界 Cn: ??, Vi: vô sắc giới)
  • Sanskrit: triloka
  • Pāli: tisso dhātuyo
  • Tibetan: ཁམས་གསུམ་ khams gsum

三界

  • Cn: ??
  • Vi: tam giới
trikaya The 3 "bodies" of Buddha:
  • Dharma-kaya (Sanskrit: dharmakāya; 法身 Cn: ??; Jp: hosshin; Vi: pháp thân)
  • Sambhoga-kaya (Sanskrit: saṃbhogakāya; 報身 Cn: ??; Jp: hōshin; Vi: báo thân)
  • Nirmana-kaya (Sanskrit: nirmāṇakāya; 應身, 応身 Cn: ??; Jp: ōjin; Vi: ứng thân)
  • Sanskrit: trikāya

三身

  • Cn: sānshén
  • Jp: sanjin
  • Vi: tam thân
Tripitaka The "Three Baskets"; canon containing the sacred texts for Buddhism (Pāli)
  • Vinaya Pitaka (Pāli, Sanskrit: Vinaya-piṭaka; Tib: འདུལ་བའི་སྡེ་སྣོད་ `dul ba`i sde snod; 律藏, 律蔵 Cn: ??; Jp: Ritsuzō; Vi: Luật tạng)
  • Sutra Pitaka (Pāli: Sutta-piṭaka; Sanskrit: Sūtra-piṭaka; Tib: མདོ་སྡེའི་སྡེ་སྣོད་ mdo sde`i sde snod; 經藏, 経蔵 Cn: ??; Jp: Kyōzō; Vi: Kinh tạng)
  • Abhidhamma Pitaka (Pāli: Abhidhamma-piṭaka; Sanskrit: Abhidharma-piṭaka; Tib: མངོན་པའི་སྡེ་སྣོད་ mngon pa`i sde snod; 論藏, 論蔵 Cn: ??; Jp: Ronzō; Vi: Luận tạng)
  • Pāli: Tipiṭaka
  • Sanskrit: Tripiṭaka
  • Thai: ไตรปิฎก Traipidok

三蔵

  • Cn: Sānzàng
  • Jp: Sanzō
  • Ko: Samjang
  • Vi: Tam tạng
trsna, see tanha above
tulku A re-incarnated Tibetan teacher
  • Tibetan: སྤྲུལ་སྐུ་
  • Sanskrit: nirmāṇa-kāya

化身 (Note: 化身 usually refers to any reincarnation.)

  • Cn: huàshēn
  • Jp: keshin
  • Vi: hoá thân
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U

DefinitionEtymologyIn other languages
upadana Clinging; the 9th link of Pratitya-Samutpada; also one of the Twelve Nidanas
  • Pāli, Sanskrit: upādāna

  • Cn: ??
  • Jp: shu
  • Vi: thủ
upasaka A lay follower of Buddhism
  • Sanskrit: upāsaka

近事男

  • Cn: ??
  • Vi: cận sự nam
upasika A female lay follower
  • from upasaka above
  • Sanskrit: upāsika

近事女

  • Cn: ??
  • Vi: cận sự nữ
upaya Expedient though not necessarily ultimately true. Originally used as a polemical device against other schools - calling them "merely" expedient, lacking in ultimate truth, later used against ones own school to prevent students form forming attachments to doctrines

In Mahayana, exemplified by the Lotus Sutra, upaya are the useful means that Buddhas (and Buddhist teachers) use to free beings into enlightenment

  • Sanskrit: upāya

方便

  • Cn: ??
  • Jp: hōben
  • Vi: phương tiện
urna a concave circular dot on the forehead between the eyebrows
  • Sanskrit: urna
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V

DefinitionEtymologyIn other languages
Vajrayana, lit. "diamond vehicle", The third major branch, alongside Hinayana and Mahayana
  • Sanskrit: vajrayāna

金剛乘

  • Cn: ??
  • Vi: Kim cương thừa
Vinaya Pitaka, lit. "discipline basket", The first basket of the Tripitaka canon, which deals with the rules of monastic life
  • Pāli, Sanskrit: vinaya-piṭaka

律藏

  • Cn: ??
  • Jp: Ritsuzō
  • Vi: Luật tạng
vipassana Usually translated as "Insight" meditation, most associated with the Theravada tradition, but present throughout Buddhism as an evolved tradition. Distinguished from samatha meditation
  • from vi-√dṛś: to see apart
  • Pāli: vipassanā
  • Sanskrit: vipaśyanā, vidarśanā

觀,観

  • Cn: ??
  • Jp: kan
  • Vi: quán
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Z

DefinitionEtymologyIn other languages
zazen Sitting meditation as practiced in the Zen School of Buddhism
  • Japanese: 坐禪

坐禪

  • Cn: zuòchán
  • Vi: toạ thiền
Zen School A Japanese branch of Mahayana that emphasizes zazen in the pursuing of enlightenment
  • Japanese: 禪宗 Zen-shu

禪宗

  • Ch: Chán-zōn
  • Vi: Thiền tông
zendo In Zen, a hall where Zen (usually meaning zazen) is practiced (see Dojo)
  • Japanese: 禅堂

禅堂

  • Cn: ??
  • Vi: thiền đường
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See also

Boeddhistische termen (pali en sanskriet) 仏教用語一覧


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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Dokusan". A list of the wikipedia authors can be found here.