Caodong (Chinese 曹洞宗) is a Chinese Zen Buddhist sect founded by Dongshan Liangjie and his Dharma-heirs in the 9th century. Some attribute the name «Caodong» as a union of «Dongshan» and «Caoshan» from one of his Dharma-heirs, Caoshan Benji; however, the «Cao» much more likely came from «Caoxi», the «mountain-name» of Huineng, the Sixth Ancestor of Chan, as Caoshan was of little importance unlike his contemporary and fellow Dharma-heir, Yunju Daoying. The sect emphasised sitting meditation, and later «silent illumination» techniques.
- Caoshan Benji (9th century)
- Dongshan Liangjie (9th century)
- Hongzhi Zhengjue (12th century)